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April 27 2017


Science AMA Series : Hi Reddit, we’re Harold Brooks, Adam Clark, Kim Klockow and Patrick Marsh, NOAA scientists in Norman, Oklahoma. We’re here to answer your questions on severe weather research and forecasting. Ask us anything!

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Severe weather touches every state in the U.S. Tornadoes, severe thunderstorms, hail, strong winds and floods are real threats to our property and our lives. NOAA Hazardous Weather Testbed works to understand and predict severe weather to help everyone be prepared. We work in the National Weather Center in Norman, Oklahoma, which houses scientists from a variety of organizations, including NOAA’s National Severe Storm Laboratory (NSSL) and Storm Prediction Center, as well as the University of Oklahoma Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies.

Spring has arrived and with it come efforts to study and learn to better predict severe weather like tornadoes. Hazardous Weather Testbed and VORTEX-SE (Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes EXperiment-Southeast), which are designed to learn more about storms, help improve our abilities and bring you better forecasts. We are ready to answer your questions today from 10 a.m. to 12 p.m. about all of it, so ask us anything!

<!-- SC_ON --> submitted by /u/NOAAgov to r/science
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April 20 2017


We're the team that made Xayah and Rakan. Ask Us Anything.

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1:00PM UPDATE - The AMA has officially ended! Probably some Rioters will hang around anyway, though.

Hey it's me your friend League of Legends. I'm a video game. We're gonna do a little AMA right here from 11:00am PST to 1:00pm PST. It's about Xayah and Rakan. They are characters in me.

A whole bunch of folks worked this part of the game. Imma put their names right below here and then you should ask them questions. Try to make your questions as weird as possible.


u/fauxschizzle | u/RiotAmpson | u/the_cactopus | u/Beat_Punchbeef | u/EndlessPillows | /u/riotexgeniar | u/Tysmurph | u/Reav3 | u/RiotLtRandolph | u/Skekses | u/Skeeziks | u/RiotScruffy | u/WAAAARGHbobo | u/RiotBrightmoon | u/DanielZKlein | u/Blaustoise | tktk adding more


Xayah and Rakan Creative Collaboration Documentary: http://nexus.leagueoflegends.com/2017/04/creative-collaboration/

Xayah and Rakan Reveals: http://na.leagueoflegends.com/en/featured/champion-xayah-rakan-reveal

Xayah Champion Spotlight: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CgQfr8bMNN8

Rakan Champion Spotlight: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HYWNOHM1fSk

<!-- SC_ON --> submitted by /u/LeagueOfLegends to r/leagueoflegends
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April 01 2017


March 27 2017


Found this on the D&D Wiki, and I'm confused

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I'm a relatively new D&D player, with only a few campaigns under my belt, but my roommate recently suggested I look into doing some more creative things with my characters like he used to in 3.5e. I took his advice and started reading.

Then I found this strange homebrew class on the D&D Wiki.


This class looks super fun, but some of the stuff is vague, and I can't find it outside the Wiki. Does anyone have any experience with this concept and can enlighten me?

<!-- SC_ON --> submitted by /u/JPAzS71121 to r/dndnext
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March 19 2017


March 14 2017


March 13 2017


March 12 2017


[SERIOUS SECURITY ERROR] Just logged onto my smurf account, and all my contacts and chat history from my main account are there.

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I triggered this by cancelling my login by accident, and I can now see the chat history of my main account, as well as the summoner names of all the contacts on both accounts.

I could see this as being a serious issue in PC bangs etc., especially with the whole chat history problem!

<!-- SC_ON --> submitted by /u/LeopardofSnow to r/leagueoflegends
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March 08 2017


ivey commented on pull request RiotGamesMinions/lefay#23

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Mar 8, 2017
ivey commented on pull request RiotGamesMinions/lefay#23
@</a><a href=ivey" class="gravatar" height="30" src="https://avatars1.githubusercontent.com/u/6?v=3&s=60" width="30" />

i deleted the whole file but yeah this would have worked too, turns out show storage is even more spammy


ivey pushed to slack at RiotGamesMinions/lefay

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Mar 8, 2017
@</a><a href=ivey" class="gravatar" height="30" src="https://avatars1.githubusercontent.com/u/6?v=3&s=60" width="30" />

Riot admits to accidentally breaking time and space

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In a press conference today, Riot Games admitted that in developing their Deterministic Disaster Recovery Tool (DDRT), they had accidentally shattered the time-space continuum. The DDRT is a device to allow for the recovery of LCS game states after a bug has occurred, it works by replaying all of human history up to the point in the game just before the bug occurred and then searching all potential realities in order to find a version of the game without that bug.

"I know this wasn’t the most intuitive way to solve this problem," said Riot Spokesman David "Phreak" Turley, who at various times in the press conference was a man, a woman, a super-intelligent shade of the color blue and Former Massachusetts Governor and 2012 Republican Presidential Nominee Mitt Romney, "but it seemed a lot easier than messing with the game’s code."

Although Riot had not previously admitted to the mistake, the signs of temporal issues have been evident for some time. The participation in the NALCS of two versions of Cloud 9, including one seemingly flung from the distant past, and the appearance of the entity known only as 'Darth Memeos,' have long raised troubling chronological questions.

The incident that finally drove Riot to admit to their unholy experiments occurred this week, when Team Liquid’s ADC, a gerbil in a highchair, flickered out of existence, and in his place appeared legendary player Yiliang "Doublelift" Peng. Even more bizarre, this Doublelift claimed to have always been a strong supporter of Liquid and that he had no knowledge of a future commitment to play for rival Team SoloMid.

The damage seems to mostly be limited to North America so far, but incidents are being reported from other leagues. The LCK seems to be caught in a time loop of their two best teams constantly facing off, while in Europe G2 didn’t totally suck in an international tournament.

Phreak/Governor Romney reassured reporters and players that this was only a temporary issue, "it might seem odd to see Midlet or to wonder why a different version of Echofox shows up on even and odd weeks, but our engineers are confident we will soon have temporal stability."

Riot reassured those present that the chronobreak would not affect the 2017 World Championship, as while the gap was closing in all possible realities and timestreams, in none of them did a non-Korean team win.

<!-- SC_ON --> submitted by /u/anonymousssss to r/leagueoflegends
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March 05 2017


March 01 2017


February 07 2017


ivey pushed to slack at RiotGamesMinions/lefay

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Feb 7, 2017
@</a><a href=ivey" class="gravatar" height="30" src="https://avatars1.githubusercontent.com/u/6?v=3&s=60" width="30" />

ivey pushed to slack at RiotGamesMinions/lefay

<!-- push -->
Feb 7, 2017
@</a><a href=ivey" class="gravatar" height="30" src="https://avatars1.githubusercontent.com/u/6?v=3&s=60" width="30" />

ivey pushed to slack at RiotGamesMinions/lefay

<!-- push -->
Feb 7, 2017
@</a><a href=ivey" class="gravatar" height="30" src="https://avatars1.githubusercontent.com/u/6?v=3&s=60" width="30" />

ivey commented on pull request scottdware/go-bigip#19

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Feb 7, 2017
ivey commented on pull request scottdware/go-bigip#19
@</a><a href=ivey" class="gravatar" height="30" src="https://avatars1.githubusercontent.com/u/6?v=3&s=60" width="30" />

What if we default it to 0, and then if it is 0 don’t set it at all. That way people can opt-in to the new timeout.

February 05 2017


January 22 2017


5e Spellcasting Explained.

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Hi. Yesterday I made a post in a thread where someone had mentionned that they weren't really up to speed with how spellcasting worked in 5e, so I tried my best to make it a simple and clear as possible, and my comment got some traction, so I figured I would re-submit it as a post by itself. Please feel free to share and link to whoever asks about spellcasting. Also feel free to point out anything that could be improved, clarified, or is missing.

Okay, so caster classes can be separated in different groups.

Wizards: At Lv1, you know 6 spells that are in your spellbook. Out of these 6 spells, you can prepare a number equal to your wizard level + INT modifier. So a lv1 Wizard with 16INT can prepare 4 spells out of the 6 they have. Every additional wizard level you gain, you learn 2 new spells that you inscribe in your spellbook. If you find scrolls that contain spells included in the Wizard spell list, you can scribe them in your spellbook if they are of a level you can cast. So eventually you have way more spells to pick from than the number you can prepare. So you have to be 'guessing' what you might be needing on your adventure that day.

It's like, you own 6 shirts. You have plans to go out for the day, but you don't know yet what to wear. You grab a bag, but it only has room for 4 shirts, so you gotta pick which ones you will bring.

Sorcerers, Bards, Warlocks, Rangers, Arcane Trickster(Rogue subclass), Eldritch Knight(Fighter Subclass): You know a certain number of spells, listed on the class progression table, and you can always cast from among all these spells. Most of these classes will know 2-3 spells when they begin (Rangers get spells at lv2, AT and EK at lv3).

You own 3-4 shirts, and you always carry them around with you.

  • Note that Warlocks are different from all other caster classes as regain their spell slots after a short or long rest, unlike other classes who only regain their spell slots after a long rest. (Wizard and Land Druids have a class feature that lets them recover a fraction of their spell slots during a short rest, usable once per long rest. Sorcerers also have a class feature that allows them to transform Sorcery Points into spell slots, or vice versa.) Furthermore, their spell slots will increase in level as the warlock gains more levels, but will top out at lv5. For Warlock spells lv6 through lv9 and how they are used, make sure you read the Mystic Arcanum paragraph in the Warlock chapter. To sum this feature up quickly, Warlocks do not have spell slots of 6th, 7th, 8th or 9th level. Instead, when they reach a Warlock level high enough where they would normally obtain such spell slots (Lv11, Lv13, Lv15 and Lv17), instead they pick one spell that particular level that they can cast once per day, without the ability to cast it at a higher level.

Druids, Clerics, Paladins: They have access to their entire spell list for which they have spell slots. So if your level grants you spells slots of 2nd level, it means you can prepare ANY spell from the class spell list among all those of 1st or 2nd level. The number of spells you can prepare is equal to (for clerics and druids) your cleric or druid level + your Wisdom Modifier. For Paladin, it's equal to half your paladin level + your Charisma modifier. Paladins get access to spellcasting once you hit lv2.

You don't directly own shirts, but every morning you get to go to the store and pick your shirts for the day.

For spell slots, imagine your spell slots are coins, or tokens.

Your prepared spells are stuffed inside a vending machine.You can cast a spell by 'buying' it with a spell slot(coin). Some of these spells can be cast at a higher level, indicated by the downwards arrow. So if you want to cast, let's say, Magic Missile, normally a lv1 spell, at 2nd level, it means you have to expend one of your 2nd level spell slot. When you cast a spell at a higher level, read the spell description to know the effects. Typically damage spells will deal more damage, and other spells will let you target more creatures or allies, and/or have longer durations.

If you want to cast Dimension Door, you must have a 4th level spell slot available. If you have only lv3 slots or lower, you cannot cast anything lv4 or above.

For spells that cannot be cast at a higher level, such as Mage Armor, you still CAN expend a higher level slot, but there are no benefits. So, if all you have left are lv3 spell slots, but you want to cast mage armor, you can expend that lv3 slot and cast a lv1 spell from it.

Note that spell slots CANNOT be combined together to create a higher level slot, so if you want to cast a 3rd level spell, but only have 1st and 2nd level spell slots remaining, you cannot combine a 1st and a 2nd to create a 3rd.

And unlike some previous D&D editions, you do not need to prepare your spell slots ahead of time. Older editions had you prepare the spells individually, so if you want to be able to cast magic missile twice, you needed to prepare it twice. In 5th Edition, if you have four lv1 spells (A, B, C, D) as your prepared spells/known spells and three lv1 spell slot, you can cast the same spell 3 times if you so choose, or cast A, C, D, or A, D, D, or any combination as you need.

Edit: Additional Info:

Spell Attack Modifier, Spell Save DC: While reading spell descriptions, you will come upon such terms as Ranged Spell Attack, Melee Spell Attack, or that the target of a spell must make a 'attribute' saving throw. Your melee or ranged spell attack modifier is calculated by adding your Proficiency Bonus and your spellcasting ability modifier. So for a lv1 Wizard with 16(+3)INT, your spell attack modifier would be 2 (Proficiency Bonus) + 3 (INT modifier) = 5, so whenever you cast a spell that requires an attack roll, Firebolt for instance, you would roll 1d20, add +5, and if your total is equal or above the target's Armor Class, your spell hits, and deals the appropriate damage as indicated by the spell's description. Spells that have you roll a d20 to hit benefit from critical hits just like weapon attacks. Also, if you have to make a ranged spell attack, and you have any hostile creature within 5' of you, your attack roll is made at Disadvantage, even if the target is not that hostile creature. The feat CROSSBOW EXPERT will cancel this Disadvantage thanks to its second bullet point.


For Spell Save DC, the formula is the following: 8 + Proficiency Bonus + Spellcasting Ability Modifier.

When you cast a spell that has a Saving Throw, you do not have to roll a d20. Instead, your target must roll a Saving Throw to mitigate/cancel the effects of the spell cast against it. If the spell causes damage, you can go ahead and roll the damage (unless the spell specifies there is no damage on a successful saving throw, then you might want to hold off).

So again with our lv1, 16INT Wizard, his spell save DC would be 8 + 2 (Proficiency Bonus) + 3 (INT modifier) = 13. So if he were to cast Burning Hands, any creature caught in the flames would get to make a Dexterity Saving Throw, as required by the spell's description rolling 1d20 + their Dexterity Saving Throw modifier, and any total of 13 or higher would cause them to only take half-damage on the 3d6 you would roll, again as explained in the spell's description.

Ritual Casting Some classes have Ritual Casting as a class feature - Bards, Clerics, Druids and Wizards (Also Warlocks have that as a class option, and there is also a Feat for that).

Spells in the PHB that can be cast as a Ritual will be shown like this:


1st-level divination (ritual)

Such spells can be cast without expending a spell slot. You simply add 10 minutes to the existing casting time to cast them as a Ritual. So it makes them inefficient to use during combat, but it adds a lot of utility outside of combat, at no cost other than the extra 10 minutes it takes you.

Wizards, Warlocks who went with "Pact of the Tome" and who picked "Book Of Ancient Secrets" as in invocation, as well as anyone who picked Ritual Caster feat, can cast any spell with the ritual tag contained in their spell book without expending a spell slot. In the case of the Wizards, the spells do NOT need to be among those prepared for the day.

So let's assume a wizard with 10 spells total in their spellbook.

They can prepare 6 spells out of these 10 every morning.

Out of the 4 non-prepared spells, 2 have the Ritual tag.

This means that effectively on that given day, the wizard has the choice of 8 spells he can cast from, 6 as normal and spending a spell slot, and the 2 rituals without expending a spell slot.

Note that you can prepare a Ritual spell like a normal spell, and then when a situation arises, you have the option of either casting it as normal by using a spell slot, or casting it as a ritual.

Bards, Clerics and Druids can also cast spells as rituals. For Druids and Clerics, they MUST have included them in their prepared spells list. Otherwise, if a Cleric only has prepared Cure Wounds, Healing Word and Bless for the day, they cannot cast Detect Magic.

Bards can cast spells as Rituals if they are among the spells they have picked as part of their progression.

CONCENTRATION: Some spells require you to Concentrate on them after casting them. If so, it will be indicated along with the spell's duration.

Duration: Concentration, up to 1 minute

You can only ever have one Concentration spell active at a time. Note that it does not prevent you from doing anything else. Moving, talking, attacking, casting any non-concentration spell, all of this is permitted. If you are Concentrating on a spell, and you wish to cast another Concentration spell, the effects of the first are ended before the effects of the second one occur. For instance, if you were concentrating on a spell that caused the target to make Saving Throws at Disadvantage, and you cast a second Concentration spell that forces the same target to make a Saving Throw, they would roll it normally, as the Disadvantage from the original spell does not affect them anymore.

You can end a Concentration Spell at any time you choose.

If any effect or spell causes you to become Incapacitated, you automatically lose your Concentration.

Whenever you take damage, you must make a Constitution Saving Throw, and the DC is either 10, or half the damage sustained, whichever is higher. Each source of damage is counted independantly. So if a dragon blasts you in the face for 40 damage, you must make a DC20 Constitution Saving Throw. If 5 rats hit you for 1 damage each, you must make 5 separate Constitution Saving Throws, DC10 for each one of them. If you fail the Saving Throw, you lose Concentration.

Note that if you Ready a spell, even one that normally does not require Concentration after being cast ("I'm Readying Grease to cast beneath the first enemy who walks within melee range of our Fighter.", you are considered having cast the spell as normal (which means, you expend your spell slot as normal, regardless of what happens afterwards), and you are required to hold Concentration on your spell until it goes off (picture someone having knocked an arrow on a bow and keeping the bow drawn, but holding off on letting the arrow go). If you get hit between the time of the casting but before you release the spell, you must make a Constitution Saving Throw (as explained above). If you fail, the spell fizzles and ends. You can hold onto a Readied spell until the beginning of your next turn. If you have not cast it before your next turn begins, the spell ends.

ACTION, BONUS ACTION: The majority of the spells have a casting time of either 1 Action, or 1 Bonus Action.

You can, in the same turn, cast two spells, however the requirements are that if you cast a Bonus Action spell of 1st level or higher, the other spell that you can cast in that same turn MUST be a cantrip with a casting time of 1 Action.

There are some exceptions to this, such as the Fighter's Action Surge feature, which gives you an additional Action on the turn you use it. If you use this, then you can cast two spells with a casting time of 1 Action without requiring that one of them be a Cantrip.

(Just keep in mind the Action/Bonus Action requirements if it applies.)



Okay, this is getting a little bit more tricky, so re-read this a few times over if you need to.

Everything I will mention here can be found on p164 (the right half of the page)-165 (the spell slot table) of the PHB.

First off, you determine your overall spellcaster level.

For each level of Bard, Cleric, Druid, Sorcerer and Wizard, add 1.

Take your levels of Paladin and/or Ranger, divide by 2, and round down, then add.

Take your levels of Eldritch Knight (Fighter archetype) and/or Arcane Trickster (Rogue Archetype), divide by 3, round down, then add.

So if you are a Druid4, Paladin 5, and Eldritch Knight7, your spellcaster level would be 4 + 5/2(rounded down to 2) + 7/3(rounded down to 2) = 8.

Refering to the p165 chart, a lv8 spellcaster has four lv1 slots, three lv2 slots, three lv3 slots and two lv4 slots.

Now, you need to refer to the invididual class progression tables to see how many spells of each class you know/can prepare.

As a Druid4, you know 3 druid cantrips, and you can prepare (Druid level+WIS modifier) druid spells every morning. Note that as a Druid4 by itself, you cannot cast any spell higher than 2nd level, so any spell you prepare must be of 1st or 2nd level.

Then as a Paladin5, the class progression table shows you can only cast 1st and 2nd level spells as well. And Paladins prepare every morning (CHA modifier + 1/2 your Paladin level, rounded down - minimum of 1 spell).

Then as an Eldritch Knight7, their spellcasting table shows that you would know 2 wizard cantrips, and 5 wizard spells. Those 5 spells would always be considered prepared, you do not need to prepare them like an actual wizard. And again, the table shows you can only cast 1st and 2nd level spells.

So, notice that none of your classes allow you to cast any spell higher than a lv2 spell, however you have spell slots of 3rd and 4th level. This is normal. This simply will allow you to cast your lower level spells at a higher level, however your basic understanding of magic does not permit you to learn more complex spells for now.

Also, when you have more than one spellcasting class, it is important to keep the spell lists separate, as the spells will be relying on the respective spellcasting attribute for each class.

For instance, you could prepare Cure Wound as either a Druid spell or a Paladin spell. However, if you were to cast it as a Druid Spell, the attribute modifier would be your Wisdom, vs Charisma if you were to cast it as a Paladin spell.

Warlocks: Warlocks are kept separate from other spellcasting classes, as their magic system is entirely different. You do not count your warlock levels when determining your spellcasting level, and their warlock spell slots are also kept separate from those you obtained per the p165 table. However, do note that you CAN use the warlock spell slot to cast spells from other classes, and it also works the other way around. And remember that warlock spell slots are regained on short or long rest, unlike all the other classes who only recuperate them after a long rest.


So if you are a Wizard1/Monk10, your character level is 11, and when reading a Cantrip description, you would cast it as an 11th level character.

For proficiency bonus, just add your total class levels together, and refer to any class's progression table, to find out what your proficiency bonus is. So if you are a Fighter2/Monk5/Wizard6, your total character levels is 13 and your Proficiency Bonus is +5.

<!-- SC_ON --> submitted by /u/ChickenBaconPoutine to r/dndnext
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